The story begins on the outskirts of Jodhpur in the village of Jalnadi, home of the Bishnoi people. The year was 1730, give or take. Servants of the maharajah, or king, travelled there looking for timber to build his new palace. That they arrived in Jalnadi was no coincidence they knew that the Bishnoi, a religious sect that worshipped nature, forbade the felling of trees. Their village stood out on the desert landscape for its lush abundance of timber. And not just any timber, but khejri trees so valuable in the Thar desert region that the species, Prosopis cineraria, is sometimes called a “wonder tree” or “king of the desert.” Not only are these trees scarce, but they play an essential part in daily life: enriching the soil with nitrogen and other nutrients, necessary for growing crops, and providing shade, shelter and fodder for livestock. As the legend goes, a villager named Amrita Devi noticed the men wandering onto her land, cutting down her precious khejri trees. Outraged, she wedged herself between the axmen and a tree, hugging it with all her might. She is remembered as saying, “If a tree is saved from felling at the cost of one’s head, it should be considered a good deed.” The men were not impressed; Devi was decapitated in front of her two daughters. Trees continued to fall. Rather than retreat, however, Devi’s daughters followed their mother’s suit and clung valiantly to the trees. Within moments, they too were beheaded by the maharajah’s men. It was not long before the whole village rose up in revolt. Men, women and children joined in, embracing the trees upon which their survival depended and heads continued to roll.
Bishnois from nearby villages joined the fight. An astonishing 363 people had been slaughtered by the time the maharajah intervened. He immediately issued a decree protecting their land from any future harm. The Bishnoi martyrs paid a heavy price. But over the next three centuries, such commitment to ecological conservation would prove invaluable to their descendants. Living in a region threatened by crippling droughts and limited natural resources, the Bishnoi have favoured far better than other communities. They have staved off famine and migration, living by a sacred code that treats plants and animal life with supreme respect. Their rugged, self-sufficient way of life has let them live richly in the desert for hundreds of years, a way of life worth defending, arguably, by any means necessary.
Bishnoi women waiting for the bus "Rajasthan, India, 2011.
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